GM rice research may give hope to micronutrient deficient

Dr Alex Johnson and his team have produced GM rice populations that may end micronutrient dificiencies.

A team of Australian researchers have produced a strain of genetically modified rice with enough iron and zinc to meet the recommended requirements intake.

Scientists from the Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics (ACPFG) produced GM rice, which has up to four times more iron and twice the levels of zinc than conventional rice, by modifying the genes of the rice to increase the amount of nutrients transported to the edible endosperm of the rice grain.

The researchers said that their GM rice represents the first time a rice lines has been reported with iron levels at, or higher than, the daily recommended levels.

“Rice is the primary source of food for roughly half of the world’s population, particularly in developing countries, yet the polished grain, also known as white rice, contains insufficient concentrations of iron, zinc and pro-vitamin A to meet daily nutritional requirements” said Dr Alex Johnson from ACPFG.
“A lack of genetic variation in rice has hindered efforts by conventional breeding programs to address iron levels. These programs have not been able to achieve the level of iron and zinc in the rice grain that we are able to achieve with a biotech approach in our glasshouse experiments,” he added.

The research, funded by the Australian Research Council and HarvestPlus, was in the journal PLoS ONE.

Deficiency

According to the World Health Organisation, iron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world and affects more than two billion people (30% of the world’s population).
“The development of new cereal varieties containing increased concentrations of iron and other essential micronutrients, an approach known as biofortification, offers an inexpensive and sustainable solution to the chronic micronutrient malnutrition problems that currently plague people in developing countries,” said Johnson.

GM research

The researchers genetically modified three populations of rice, to constitutively overexpress the gene loci OsNAS1, OsNAS2 orOsNAS3, respectively.

The team found that nicotianamine, iron and zinc concentrations were “significantly increased in unpolished grain of all three of the overexpression populations, relative to controls, with the highest concentrations in the OsNAS2 and OsNAS3 overexpression populations.”

A four-fold increase in iron and two-fold increase in zinc concentrations were reported in the OsNAS2population.

“The results demonstrate that rice cultivars overexpressing single rice OsNASgenes could provide a sustainable and genetically simple solution to iron and zinc deficiency disorders affecting billions of people throughout the world,” said Johnson and his colleagues.

Rice solution?

The team is said to be the first to raise rice plants in the greenhouse with the desired level of iron and zinc. They said that field trials for the rice strain have already begun in the Philippines – in collaboration with the International Rice Research Institute.

However, Johnson and his team noted that it will take several seasons to determine whether the rice is growing properly and consistently taking up sufficient iron and zinc. Only then will they be able to test whether animals can actually obtain more nutrients from the grain, before eventually progressing to developing a product for human consumption.

Johnson said that he expects the entire process could take around a decade, explaining that it may be a while before iron-rich rice appears on supermarket shelves but adding that the research opens the door to a range of new and improved super foods.

Source: PLoS ONE
Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024476
“Constitutive Overexpression of the OsNAS Gene Family Reveals Single-Gene Strategies for Effective Iron- and Zinc-Biofortification of Rice Endosperm”
Authors: A.A.T. Johnson, B. Kyriacou, D.L. Callahan, L. Carruthers, J. Stangoulis, E. Lombi, M. Teste

Related News

Hilary Clinton to tell United Nations to back nutrition interventions in NCDs

Hilary Clinton to tell United Nations to back nutrition interventions in NCDs

Singapore pledges $8.2m to Asia rice science for the next five years

Singapore pledges $8.2m to Asia rice science for the next five years

Largest ever vitamin A-infant mortality trials begin in India, Ghana, Tanzania

Largest ever vitamin A-infant mortality trials begin in India, Ghana, Tanzania

Human studies, bioavailability data showing variability between specific forms of micronutrients and animal studies were used as data sources. (© iStock.com)

Micronutrient intake: New approach seeks to determine optimum levels

Only through a collaborative effort that reaches across the value chain will biofortification achieve the vision of reaching one billion people. ©iStock

Biofortification drive to reach 1bn dependent on consumer demand: Review

Micronutrient powders may reduce anaemia and iron deficiency: Cochrane review

Americans need supplements, fortified foods to achieve nutrient intakes: Survey

Americans need supplements, fortified foods to achieve nutrient intakes: Survey

RDAs on the agenda at global food supplements summit

RDAs on the agenda at global food supplements summit

Vitamin A supplements may save 600,000 children annually

Vitamin A supplements may save 600,000 children annually

New EU project to address poor nutrition in groups at risk from poverty

New EU project to address poor nutrition in groups at risk from poverty

Breakfast cereals boost nutritional intake in low income populations: Study

Comments (2)

harry - 19 Sep 2011 | 03:19

GM RICE & MICRO-NUTRIENTS

GM health benefits are clinically not provable in:- the maintenance of human or animal health. When compared with clinical needs. Natural and in addition organic are the only way to re-gain public health.

19-Sep-2011 at 15:19 GMT

Gabriel Paulino - 09 Sep 2011 | 08:53

Hopefully that's not another Golden Rice story...

That's great news but I wonder if an FTO has been done upstream of the development of the rice. We don't want to end up in a situation like the Golden Rice where Path To Market was full of road blocks because of the use of 70 different technologies in the development process. It is very important to look at these issues especially in the Public Sector when too often technologies are used without appropriate licenses and can therefore be a real nightmare before being able to be commercialized...even for humanitarian purposes. There are some great organizations out here than can help look at these issues (PIPRA = Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture). Let's hope that these issues have been thought out before but IP is just one piece of the path to market puzzle and regulatory path for GMO is a lengthy and burdensome process as well.

09-Sep-2011 at 20:53 GMT

Submit a comment

Your comment has been saved

Post a comment

Please note that any information that you supply is protected by our Privacy and Cookie Policy. Access to all documents and request for further information are available to all users at no costs, In order to provide you with this free service, William Reed Business Media SAS does share your information with companies that have content on this site. When you access a document or request further information from this site, your information maybe shared with the owners of that document or information.